Carnival and Carnivals
Farewell to winter and the arrival of spring was celebrated and celebrated in many countries. Over time, these holidays have become to rethink and to coincide with Lent. Each country has its own flavor and its own traditions. In Russia Maslenitsa or cheese Week. Mainly in Catholic countries is the carnival.
Carnival, if translated from Latin means “goodbye to meat”, or car from val –”ship of fools”. This is a bright large processions. With the participation of clowns, with traditional theatrical interludes and treats all comers. The carnival took place in the cities of Western Europe from the 9th century. At first carnival was the second part of the holiday, then, as the first was connected with Church regulations, but subsequently, from about the 18th century began to prevail folk still fun and the Carnival was just bright folk holiday, full of flowers and foods. The main Manager in theatrical processions – the jester.
Carnivals appeared initially in Italy, then they began to be celebrated in France and then in Germany. Carnivals in different countries have their own names. For example – Mardi Gras, which means in translation of the French “Fat Tuesday”. Is celebrated before the Catholic lent in countries such as France, Czech Republic, Belgium, the USA and many other countries.
The main characters in the parades in New Orleans are mummers “king” with “Queen”, riding in his chariot and spreading to the people of tin coins, beads and other varieties. If you remember the famous painter Brueghel the Elder, before the eyes of the spectator stands of medieval France and the Netherlands, where on the last day of carnival, was held on the square in mock battle the fat man – “carnival” with a thin dressed in a hoodie “Lent”. Weapon “Shrovetide” is a spit strung with pig’s head and chicken, the weapons from the “Post” – shovel with long handle, on which lay two fish.
In Germany, the carnival is called Fastnacht. It has the same name Fastnet and Patent. The carnival originates from the 18th century. He also, like many carnivals celebrated in the form of a game with costumed processions that depict clowns, demons, sweeps, etc. the procession Begins in “Dirty Thursday”, which precedes the Great lent (“Ash Wednesday”). Special attention in the procession is given to the creation of noise. In the course are bells and whistles the coachman whips, hunting horns. People singing songs. Amidst all this fun home residents go chimney sweeps or witches, performing the symbolic ritual of cleansing carnival costumes of the citizens of dirt. Fastnacht not a public holiday, but the people loved him and supported by centuries of tradition.
Carnivals before lent (Ash Wednesday) are held in countries such as Canada, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and many States in the U.S. and Brazil.
Characteristically, regardless of the name of the carnival, whether or “Fat Tuesday”, or “repentance day” or “pancake day” (the title is characteristic of English-speaking countries), and whether “fat Thursday” – makes them costumed theatrical procession of treats that precedes the beginning of Lent.
Russia has a tradition to celebrate the farewell to winter. In the pagan past of Russia this holiday called Maslenitsa. “Carnival” was celebrated during the winter solstice. Originally it was a feast with human sacrifices sacrificed to idols and food – pancakes. Later on the adoption of Christianity in Russia, as the echo from pagan times, the celebration of “carnival” already had conditional character. It was celebrated in the last week before Lent. The celebration was accompanied by lavish meals everyone pancakes and all sorts of food and treats without eating meat products.
In the villages of Russia it was customary with the “Pancake” parades, where costumed drove through the streets of the Scarecrow “carnival”, dressed in women’s dress. It burned on the last day of the feast of fat along with old rags. Not only in villages but in big cities it was customary to visit each other’s homes especially relatives. Even the days of the “carnival” had its name: meeting; merriment – on this day, bobsled and invited to eat pancakes guests and relatives; gourmet – went to the mother-in-law on pancakes; wide rampant – is riding icy mountains, visiting booths, carnivals and much more; the evening mother-in-law is already a mother-in-law to sons-in-law went to visit; law parties.
“Carnival” in common parlance called “Cheese week”, the last Sunday before Lent. In “Cheese week” accepted, as eating pancakes and all foods except meat, walking each other’s homes. But unlike the noisy folk festivals is the period of preparation of the soul for spiritual and physical abstinence. At the end of “Cheese week” so-called “forgiveness Sunday”. At the service in the temple and at home in front of family and friends sought forgiveness, brought for intentional and unintentional wrongs.